*Michael Fowler*, *UVa Physics, 12/1/07*

If I walk from the back to the front of a train at 3 m.p.h., and the train
is traveling at 60 m.p.h., then common sense tells me that my speed relative to
the ground is 63 m.p.h. As we have seen, this obvious truth, the simple
addition of velocities, follows from the Galilean transformations. Unfortunately, it can’t be quite
right for high speeds! We know that
for a flash of light going from the back of the train to the front, the speed
of the light relative to the ground is exactly the same as its speed relative
to the train, not 60 m.p.h. different.
Hence it is necessary to do a careful analysis of a fairly speedy person
moving from the back of the train to the front as viewed from the ground, to
see how velocities *really* add.

**We consider our standard train of
length L moving down the track at steady speed v, and equipped
with synchronized clocks at the back and the front. The walker sets off from the back of the
train when that clock reads zero.
Assuming a steady walking speed of u meters per second (relative
to the train, of course), the walker will see the front clock to read L/u
seconds on arrival there. **

How does this look from the ground?
Let’s assume that at the instant the walker began to walk from the
clock at the back of the train, the back of the train was passing the ground
observer’s clock, and both these clocks (one on the train and one on the
ground) read zero. The ground
observer sees the walker reach the clock at the front of the train at the
instant that clock reads *L/u *(this is in agreement with what is observed
*on* the train—two simultaneous events *at the same place* are
simultaneous to all observers), but at this same instant, the ground observer
says the train’s *back* clock, where the walker began, reads* L/u
+ Lv/c ^{2}*. (This
follows from our previously established result that two clocks synchronized in
one frame, in which they are

Now, how much time elapses as measured by the ground observer’s clock
during the walk? At the instant the walk began, the ground observer saw the
clock at the back of the train (which was right next to him) to read zero. At the instant the walk ended, the
ground observer would say that clock read *L/u + Lv/c ^{2}*, from
the paragraph above. But the ground
observer would see that clock to be running slow, by the usual time dilation
factor: so he would measure the time of the walk on his own clock to be:

_{}

How *far *does the walker move as viewed from the ground? In the time *t _{W}*, the
train travels a distance

_{}

The walker’s *speed* relative to the ground is simply *d _{W}/t_{W}*,
easily found from the above expressions:

_{}

*This is the appropriate formula for adding velocities*. Note that it
gives the correct answer, *u + v*, in the low velocity limit, and also if *u*
or *v* equals *c*, the sum of the velocities is *c*.

*Exercise: *Suppose a spaceship is equipped with a series of one-shot
rockets, each of which can accelerate the ship to* c/2* from rest. It uses one rocket to leave the solar
system (ignore gravity here) and is then traveling at *c/2* (relative to
us) in deep space. It now fires its
second rocket, keeping the same direction.
Find how fast it is moving relative to us. It now fires the third rocket, keeping
the same direction. Find its new
speed. Can you draw any general
conclusions from your results?

Actually, the first test of the addition of velocities formula was carried
out in the 1850s! Two French
physicists, Fizeau and Foucault, measured the speed of light in water, and
found it to be *c*/*n*, where *n* is the refractive index of
water, about 1.33. (This was the result predicted by the wave theory of light.)

They then measured the speed of light (relative to the ground) in *moving* water, by sending light down a long
pipe with water flowing through it at speed *v*. They discovered that the speed relative
to the ground was not just *v* + *c*/*n*, but had an extra term,
*v* + *c*/*n* - *v*/*n*^{2}. Their (incorrect) explanation was that
the light was a complicated combination of waves in the water and waves in the
aether, and the moving water was only partially dragging the aether along with
it, so the light didn’t get the full speed *v* of the water added to
its original speed *c*/*n*.

The true explanation of the extra term is much simpler: velocities
don’t simply add. To add the
velocity *v* to the velocity *c*/*n*, we must use the addition
of velocities formula above, which gives the light velocity relative to the
ground to be:

(*v* + *c*/*n*)/(1
+ *v*/*nc*)

Now, *v* is much smaller than *c* or *c*/*n*, so 1/(1 + *v*/*nc*)
can be written as (1 - *v*/*nc*), giving:

(*v* + *c*/*n*)(1
- *v*/*nc*)

Multiplying this out gives *v* + *c*/*n* - *v*/*n*^{2}
-*v*/*n*×*v*/*c*, and the last term is smaller than *v*
by a factor *v*/*c*, so is clearly negligible.

Therefore, the 1850 experiment looking for “aether drag” in fact
confirms the relativistic addition of velocities formula! Of course, there are
many other confirmations. For
example, any velocity added to *c* still gives *c*. Also, it indicates that the speed of
light is a speed limit for all objects, a topic we shall examine more carefully
in the next lecture.

Copyright © Michael Fowler, 1996